Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually - 20 m (Ref. 92868). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N - 24°S
Indo-Pacific: common and wide-ranging, from the Western Indian Ocean to Japan and Pacific Ocean islands to as far as the Marquesas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
(total): 8 - 9;
soft rays: 12. Body and head mottled with dark brown and buff; fin rays with dark brown or black spots; dark brown saddle blotch on top of caudal peduncle (Ref. 4315). Least interorbital width going 3.8-7.2 times in diameter of eye. Base of lower opercular spine concealed by scales. Anterior 1-3, usually 3, lateral line scales bearing a small spine. Iris lappet bearing short branches with bifurcate tips.
Inhabits sand areas adjacent to coral reefs (Ref. 9790). Seldom noticed for it buries itself in the sand (often partially). Usually in small groups (Ref. 48635). Feeds on crustaceans, crabs and prawns, also on fishes.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25.4 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 980 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00346 - 0.01003), b=3.10 (2.94 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.63 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 90.7 [40.4, 235.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.729 [0.422, 1.475] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.4 [16.1, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.216 [0.106, 0.571] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.7 [18.5, 92.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 82.8 [32.3, 207.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.32 [0.83, 2.05] mg/100g (wet weight);