Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Peters.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California and Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 31.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9255)
In coastal waters, estuaries and lagoons, but occasionally also in greater depths. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D., 1995. Gymnuridae. Rayas-mariposa, tuyos. p. 756-758. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para los Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9255)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00385 - 0.01971), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 93.8 [14.5, 318.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.628 [0.157, 1.866] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.4 [18.4, 24.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.263 [0.086, 0.753] g/100g ; Selenium = 37.9 [8.5, 115.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 61.8 [19.0, 220.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.899 [0.421, 1.956] mg/100g (wet weight);