Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes(genus, species) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 112 m (Ref. 96339), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 28°N - 4°S, 112°W - 82°W (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Central Pacific: Gulf of California to Ecuador.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 89.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Benthic in shallow waters over soft bottom (Ref. 9262). Adults feed on prawns and crabs, juveniles mainly amphipod crustaceans (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.7 - 28.9, mean 26 °C (based on 84 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00156 - 0.00509), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 70.2 [10.1, 230.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.656 [0.146, 1.742] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.1, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.17 [0.08, 0.39] g/100g ; Selenium = 61.4 [17.7, 178.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.9 [4.7, 26.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.829 [0.400, 2.042] mg/100g (wet weight);