Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Ariidae
(Sea catfishes) > Ariinae
More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 24°N -
Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86329); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body robust and depressed; snout prominent; mouth large; eyes medium sized (5.8 to 8.5 times in head length); cephalic plate granulated; with striations extending to the inter-orbital space; jaw teeth small, set in broad bands; palate with four plates of villiform teeth, the lateral ones being larger, triangular, and extended backwards; lower branch of the first gill arch with 7 to 10 gill rakers (Ref. 55763).
Found in coastal waters (Ref. 9271). Possibly restricted to marine environments (Ref. 39852). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9271).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J. and W.A. Bussing, 1995. Ariidae. Bagres marinos. p. 860-886. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9271)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Traumatogenic (Ref. 58010)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 28.6, mean 27 °C (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5002 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00405 - 0.01239), b=3.08 (2.93 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 5.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.20).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .