Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 5227), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 0°C - ; 27°N - 2°S
Eastern Pacific: Mexico to Ecuador, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114)
Body oblong, compressed, and deep (depth contained 2.3 to 2.7 times in standard length); mouth large and terminal, its posterior end located at the same level as the anterior edge of the pupil; first gill arch with 15 to 22 gill rakers; dorsal fin notched, with 11 to 12 spines and 14 to 17 soft rays (XI-XII, 14-17); second anal spine slightly longer and stronger than third; scale series above lateral line oblique; body silvery gray; each scale bearing a dark spot;; the spots appearing to form lines following the scale series; fins charcoal gray (Ref.. 55763).
Forms schools above rocky, boulder strewn reefs, slopes, and hard substrate with good water movement (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
McKay, R.J. and M. Schneider, 1995. Haemulidae. Burros, corocoros, chulas, gallinazos, roncos. p. 1136-1173. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9114)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 29.1, mean 27.4 °C (based on 195 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01514 (0.00669 - 0.03426), b=3.02 (2.84 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (34 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 44.2 [23.9, 81.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.599 [0.328, 1.113] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.2 [17.1, 21.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.147 [0.072, 0.256] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.2 [14.2, 58.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 128 [41, 388] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.838 [0.491, 1.332] mg/100g (wet weight);