Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 15°N - 8°S, 95°W - 78°W
Eastern Pacific: Recorded principally from the Galapagos Islands but records also exist from Guatemala to Panama, including Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 29.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9321)
Occur in shallow waters, most commonly in areas of mangrove development and shallow embayments. Often seen scraping algae from lava rocks or browsing on filamentous algae (Ref. 28023). Oviparous, eggs are pelagic and non-adhesive (Ref. 205). More data needed. Probably caught incidentally with other mullets.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, I.J., 1995. Mugilidae. Lisas. p. 1293-1298. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9321)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21 - 29.1, mean 27.8 °C (based on 120 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00531 - 0.02484), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .