Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 36 m (Ref. 9710), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 23°N - 14°S, 71°E - 165°E (Ref. 55)
Indo-Pacific: mainly the Indo-Australian Archipelago from the Solomon Islands to Sumatra, and from off Cape York Peninsula, Australia, northward to the Philippines; also occurring in the central and eastern Indian Ocean as far west as Maldives.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55)
soft rays: 8. Snout profile low, sloping very gently. Preorbital bone narrow, its width less than half of eye diameter. Preopercular notch and knob poorly developed. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Generally dark brown of the upper part of the head and body with a broad white horizontal band immediately below. The lower part of the head and body dusky brown with a suffusion of yellow. A pair of white spots is on the back just below the dorsal fin base (Ref. 469).
Adults inhabit coral reefs (Ref. 9710, 48635) and outer reef slopes (Ref. 37816, 48635). They sometimes form large schools of more than 100 individuals. Often solitary (Ref. 48635). Feed mainly on small fishes and crustaceans. Generally uncommon (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.5 - 29.2, mean 28.6 °C (based on 602 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.00693 - 0.03016), b=2.98 (2.82 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 43.6 [27.1, 68.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.451 [0.291, 0.738] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [17.1, 19.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.172 [0.114, 0.263] g/100g ; Selenium = 59.4 [34.9, 109.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 306 [62, 1,034] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.546 [0.387, 0.931] mg/100g (wet weight);