Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on authors: Jordan & Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 70 m (Ref. 9313), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 4°N, 90°W - 77°W (Ref. 55)
Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Panama; rare north of Baja California, Mexico. There are unsubstantiated reports of this species from localities as far south as northern Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 9.3 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults inhabit inshore reef areas over hard bottoms. Generally solitary (Ref. 9313). Juveniles are sometimes encountered in shallow coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 9313). Carnivorous, feed on invertebrates and fishes (Ref. 9313). Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9313).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 29, mean 27.7 °C (based on 28 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00708 - 0.01861), b=2.95 (2.82 - 3.08), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (55 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 15.6 [7.0, 31.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.533 [0.263, 1.131] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.3, 19.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.342 [0.153, 0.775] g/100g ; Selenium = 38.5 [13.7, 90.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 73.6 [10.3, 399.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.5 [0.3, 1.0] mg/100g (wet weight);