Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish. More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 2 - 35 m (Ref. 90102), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 19°S, 75°E - 142°E (Ref. 55)
Indo-West Pacific: southern India and Sri Lanka to New Guinea, north to the Ryukyu Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 48635); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37816)
soft rays: 8 - 9. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body moderately deep, its depth 2.6-3.1 in SL; preopercular notch and knob poorly developed; vomerine tooth patch crescentic, without a medial posterior extension; tongue with a patch of granular teeth; gill rakers of first gill arch 6 + 8-10 = 14-16. Colour generally whitish, with a `checker-board' pattern on upper half of sides, with dark brown bars and stripes, surrounding rectangular, whitish 'windows'; horizontal brown stripes 5-6, 2 on lower half of sides; caudal fin base with large black spot. (Ref. 9821, 90102)
Adults inhabit both inshore and offshore coral reefs where they occur singly or in schools. Small juveniles on shallow protected reef flats and are used in the aquarium trade.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.4 - 29.3, mean 28.7 °C (based on 1828 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01102 - 0.02869), b=2.99 (2.86 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 40.1 [26.9, 57.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.351 [0.241, 0.547] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.8 [17.4, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.156 [0.118, 0.207] g/100g ; Selenium = 67 [47, 95] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 183 [37, 520] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.553 [0.416, 0.908] mg/100g (wet weight);