Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gobiiformes
(Gobies) > Gobiidae
(Gobies) > Gobionellinae
Etymology: Knipowitschia: Because of N.M.Knipowitsch, a zoologist and Russian ichthyologist from the Academy of Sciences. Expeditions in "Pomor" and "Pervosvanniy" ships to Azov and Black sea (1898-1908). More on author: Berg.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 46888); depth range - 2 m (Ref. 12215), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 47°N - 38°N, 12°E - 61°E
Eurasia: along the coasts of Black, Azov, Caspian and Aegean seas west to Aliakmon drainage (Greece). Identity of the population along the eastern shore of Adriatic is questionable. Introduced in the Aral Sea and is now extirpated.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 2 - 2.3 cm
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4696)
soft rays: 7 - 9;
Vertebrae: 31 - 32. Anterior oculoscapular, preopercular, and sometimes posterior oculoscapular, canals present; body squamation complete on caudal peduncle and along at least lateral midline to axil. Males with 4-5 major vertical bars.
Inhabit fresh to hyper-saline waters (to 55 ppt) of lakes, estuaries and lagoons, in shallow areas with much weed. Feed on small crustaceans and chironomid larvae (Ref.12215); larvae of the mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Ref. 59043). Lives less than 2 years. Spawns after first winter. Eggs are attached to the roof of a cavity under stones, plant material or shells and are defended by male. Postlarvae are pelagic. (Ref.59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns up to 4 portions of eggs (Ref. 59043).
Miller, P.J., 1986. Gobiidae. p. 1019-1085. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.4 - 18.7, mean 17.6 °C (based on 188 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00597 - 0.00840), b=3.05 (3.00 - 3.10), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .