Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 16°N - 20°S, 95°W - 71°W (Ref. 114953)
Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico to Peru and Chile, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 114 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111131)
Mainly coastal, benthic species with unknown biology (Ref. 114953). May reach 170 cm TL (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
Chirichigno, N.F., 1974. Clave para identificar los peces marinos del Peru. Inf. Inst. Mar Perú (44):1-387. (Ref. 5530)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.6 - 28.6, mean 26.3 °C (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00135 - 0.00426), b=3.09 (2.94 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (57 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 58.6 [8.5, 191.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.607 [0.134, 1.616] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.3 [16.2, 20.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.164 [0.075, 0.372] g/100g ; Selenium = 64.9 [19.3, 190.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.1 [4.2, 24.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.776 [0.376, 1.904] mg/100g (wet weight);