Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 22 - 222 m (Ref. 58489), usually ? - 100 m (Ref. 30464). Temperate
Southwest Pacific: in temperate waters.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30464); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30464)
Occur in the continental shelf (Ref. 7300, 75154). Benthic (Ref. 75154). Sedentary fishes that swim slowly and spend much of their time resting on the bottom. They use the long snout for probing in crevices, seaweed and sand for crabs, worms, and other benthic invertebrates (Ref. 30464). Neither anterolateral glandural groove nor venom gland is present (Ref. 57406).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 10 - 18.1, mean 15.1 °C (based on 157 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5176 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100).