Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 11 - 45 m (Ref. 9790), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: Somalia, Mauritius, Seychelles, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Chagos Archipelago, Indonesia, Philippines, Port Moresby, northern Queensland and New Caledonia. Reported from India (Ref. 45255).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 11. Infraorbital and suborbital ridges bearing many fine serrations. Lower side of head unicarinate. Iris lappet bilobed. Caudal fin with dark basal band, whitish central band, blackish submarginal band becoming paler above, upper area usually with a few distinct dark spots.
Taken over sand around coral reefs to depths of 11 m; one specimen taken by trawl at 45 m (Ref. 9790). Also occurs on silty sand or rubble bottoms near reefs (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knapp, L.W., 1999. Platycephalidae. Flatheads. p. 2385-2421. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9790)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.2 - 29, mean 27.9 °C (based on 442 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00239 - 0.01100), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 110 [48, 274] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.679 [0.395, 1.435] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 20] % ; Omega3 = 0.155 [0.071, 0.438] g/100g ; Selenium = 41 [19, 104] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 83.2 [30.4, 211.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.4 [0.9, 2.2] mg/100g (wet weight);