Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 62 m (Ref. 6871), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 8°S - 16°S
Eastern Indian Ocean and Southwest Pacific: northern Australia, southern New Guinea and eastern Indonesia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 18 - 22 cm
Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9840)
Found offshore on continental shelf and feeds on bony fishes and crustaceans. Litters of 1-3 pups, born at 12-14 cm WD (Ref. 114953). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 27.1 - 28.7, mean 28 °C (based on 140 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00342 - 0.03513), b=3.11 (2.86 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .