Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 36°N - 24°S, 48°E - 169°E
Northwest Pacific: Indonesia (Java ) to central China, including Taiwan.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9840)
This demersal species is found inshore and on continental shelf to at least 50 m depth. It feeds on small bony fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 11889, 114953). Max size may reach up to 85 cm WD (Ref. 47613). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Litters of only 1 pup (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Last, P.R. and L.J.V. Compagno, 1999. Dasyatididae. Stingrays. p. 1479-1505. In K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 3. Batoid fishes, chimaeras and bony fishes part 1 (Elopidae to Linophrynidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9840)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.7 - 29.1, mean 28.2 °C (based on 1060 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00479 (0.00344 - 0.00666), b=3.07 (2.98 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (83 of 100) .