Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: Dipturus: Greek, di = two + Greek, pteryx = fin (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Jordan & Fowler.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 45 - 400 m (Ref. 114953), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C - ; 42°N - 15°N, 121°E - 144°E (Ref. 114953)
Western Pacific: Japan to northern Philippines, including Taiwan (Ref. 114953).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 113 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Found on sand-mud bottoms (Ref. 41299). Depth range from 80 m-150 m (Ref. 41299). Feeds on invertebrates and bony fish (Ref. 9908, Ref. 114953). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 8.5-10.0 cm long and 5.5-6.4 cm wide (Ref. 41249 , 41253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 9908). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14 - 27.2, mean 20.3 °C (based on 96 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.61 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (64 of 100) .