Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 70 - 90 m (Ref. 11230), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Western Central Pacific: East and South China seas from Shanghai (China) to Kuching (Sarawak), and possibly off eastern Indonesia. Possibly wide ranging in the Indo-Pacific.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 55.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 9908)
Occur in the sublittoral zone, 70-90 m on sandy mud bottoms (Ref. 11230). Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules measure 6.1 cm long and 3.7 cm wide (Ref. 41249). Utilization details sketchy (Ref. 9908). Very rarely caught by demersal longline fisheries off Java. Utilized for its meat (Ref.58048).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous (Ref. 9908). Paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.5 - 27.2, mean 24.7 °C (based on 98 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .