Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 120 m (Ref. 58497), usually - m (Ref. ). Temperate; 0°C -
Northwest Pacific: Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Ref. 8630). Appears to be confined to the continental shelf off Japan and in the China Seas south to about Xiamen (Ref. 47737).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 39 - ? cm
Max length : 57.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111281); max. published weight: 750.00 g (Ref. 111281)
Bottom-dweller that feeds on invertebrates and bony fish. Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 4.8-6.6 cm long and 2.9-3.7 cm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253, 41298). Depth range given by H. Ishihara (pers.comm. 07/07).
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid mainly at night (Ref. 44760). Batches of eggs are laid in three to six-day interval on sand bottom. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 26, mean 22 °C (based on 123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00282 (0.00161 - 0.00493), b=3.22 (3.07 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec = 40-150;).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .