Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°N - 10°N, 62°E - 138°E (Ref. 114953)
Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan to China and off Cambodia, including Taiwan and possibly Japan and Philippines (Ref. 9912, Ref. 114953). Photo records from Komodo, Indonesia (Seret, pers.comm. 01/15). Conservation status maybe of concern in Northwest Pacific because of its inshore benthic habitat, low abudance, and the presence of intensive demersal fisheries (Ref. 47737).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114953)
Preorbital length about equal to preoral length (and much greater than prenasal length), and dark brown spots that are usually greater than eye diameter over a brown background (Ref. 49866).
Found in continental waters, both inshore and offshore (Ref. 9912). Biology little known (Ref. 9912). Maturity size of males at ca. 24 cm TL, birth size at ca. 11 cm TL (Ref. 114953).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
de Carvalho, M.R. and J.E. Randall, 2003. Numbfishes from the Arabian Sea and surrounding gulfs, with the description of a new species from Oman (Chondrichthyes: Torpediniformes: Narcinidae). Ichthyol. Res. 50(1):59-66. (Ref. 49866)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 22.8 - 28.6, mean 27.1 °C (based on 1300 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01175 (0.00468 - 0.02950), b=2.88 (2.67 - 3.09), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Assuming fecundity<100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .