Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Clupeidae
(Herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens) > Alosinae
Etymology: Alosa: Latin, alausa = a fish cited by Ausonius and Latin, halec = pickle, dealing with the Greek word hals = salt; it is also the old Saxon name for shad = "alli" ; 1591 (Ref. 45335); alabamae: From the word alabamae, meaning from Alabama (Ref. 10294) More on authors: Jordan & Evermann.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 44°N - 24°N, 96°W - 81°W
Western Central Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico (northern part, from the Mississippi delta eastward to the Choctawhatchee River in Florida; also in rivers from Iowa to Arkansas and across to West Virginia). Status of threat from Ref. 11858.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); common length : 42.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
spines: 0. Body moderately compressed, belly with distinct keel of scutes. Lower jaw steeply rising within mouth; no teeth present at front of jaws; upper jaw with a distinct notch. The only other shad of the Gulf of Mexico has only 20 to 24 gill rakers. Closely resembles A. aestivalis and A. pseudoharengus of Atlantic coasts, but in them the lower jaw rises very steeply in the mouth (Ref. 188).
Forms schools. Ascends rivers and streams to spawn in spring or early summer, the young presumably descending in autumn. Marketed mostly fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns in freshwater in spring or early summer, ascending rivers and streams, the young presumably descending in autumn.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00370 - 0.01703), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .