Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Pristigasteridae
Etymology: Opisthopterus: Greek, opisthe = behind + Greek, pteron = wing. Fin (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - 50 m (Ref. 188), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 5°S, 116°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Pacific: Rio Muerto in the Gulf of California southward to Gulf of Guayaquil, Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114986); common length : 18.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9336)
soft rays: 55 - 62. Belly with about 29 scutes. Lower jaw projecting, its mouth pointing obliquely upward; no hypo-maxilla. Pectoral fin a little longer than head; dorsal fin origin nearer to caudal fin base than to vertical from pectoral fin base by 1 and 1/2 eye diameters (or behind midpoint of body by 2 and 1/4 eye diameter); anal fin long, its origin much nearer to snout tip than to caudal fin base.
Occurs in coastal waters, perhaps entering brackish water (Ref. 9336). Feeds mainly on small fishes (Ref. 9336).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 28.5, mean 26.8 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00603 (0.00359 - 0.01013), b=3.00 (2.85 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .