Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 13°N - 5°S, 88°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to Guayaquil Gulf, Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 56 - 62. Belly with 26 to 28 scutes. Lower jaw projecting, mouth pointing obliquely upward; no hypo-maxilla. Dorsal fin origin nearer to caudal fin base than to vertical from pectoral fin base by about 2 eye diameters (or behind midpoint of body by about 3 eye diameters); anal fin long, its origin much nearer to snout tip than to caudal fin base. Scales easily shed.
Occurs in coastal waters, perhaps entering water with low salinities (Ref. 9336).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00377 - 0.01751), b=3.05 (2.87 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .