Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 14°N - 5°N, 90°W - 77°W (Ref. 188)
Eastern Central Pacific: El Salvador to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9336); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9336)
soft rays: 61 - 68. Belly with an uninterrupted keel of about 29 or 30 scutes, the outer edges of the scutes distinctly serrated. Upper jaw broad at midpoint, tapering posteriorly, the tip reaching or surpassing the gill opening; no hypo-maxilla. Pectoral fins large; dorsal fin rather small, set far back on body; anal fin long.
Found inshore, perhaps entering estuaries (Ref. 9336). Feeds on small crustaceans and fishes (Ref. 9336).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: subsistence fisheries
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00407 (0.00164 - 0.01009), b=3.05 (2.84 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (20 of 100) .