Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Melapedalion: Greek, melan, -anos = black + Greek, pedalion = rudder (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Seale.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 1 m (Ref. 126046). Tropical
Western Central Pacific: limited to South China and Sulu seas.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 22.7 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9843)
A coastal species (Ref. 9843), characterized by a sandy bottom with patchy seagrass beds and was collected in Indonesia together with the silverbiddy (Gerres sp.) and silverside (Atherinomorus sp.) (Ref. 126046).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., 1999. Hemiramphidae. Halfbeaks. p. 2180-2196. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 4. Bony fishes part 2 (Mugilidae to Carangidae). FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9843)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00146 - 0.00687), b=3.08 (2.90 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.2 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100).