Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Zenarchopteridae
(Internally fertilized halfbeaks)
Etymology: Zenarchopterus: Particle zen, derived from zao = to give life + Greek, archos = anus + Greek, pteron = fin. More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: India, Malay Peninsula, East Indies, Philippines, Hainan Island in China, Taiwan, New Guinea and northern Australia (Ref. 10943). Known from the lower Mekong (Ref. 12693).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 10 - ? cm
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
soft rays: 10 - 13. This species is distinguished by the following characters: upper jaw distinctly wider than long; width divided by length 1.05-1.35; sixth anal fin ray of adult males much thickened and enlarged, not reaching base of caudal fin; fourth to seventh dorsal rays of adult males slightly elongate; a prominent dark brown stripe along the midline of the snout.
Found at the surface levels in coastal waters, estuaries and rivers. Feeds on terrestrial insects. Not seen in markets (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301. (Ref. 10943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 25 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 1204 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00181 - 0.01006), b=3.02 (2.81 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 123 [49, 310] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.12 [0.53, 2.33] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.5 [14.5, 18.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.246 [0.087, 0.704] g/100g ; Selenium = 34.8 [13.3, 85.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 109 [19, 515] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.99 [1.14, 3.54] mg/100g (wet weight);