Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lutjanidae
(Snappers) > Lutjaninae
Etymology: Lutjanus: Malay, ikan lutjan, name of a fish.
More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 26 - 340 m (Ref. 9626), usually 70 - 120 m (Ref. 55). Tropical; 25°N - 19°S, 87°W - 35°W (Ref. 54572)
Western Atlantic: throughout most of the Caribbean Sea from Cuba southward to northeastern Brazil. Frequently confused with Lutjanus campechanus. Also referred to as Lutjanus aya by past authors, but Rivas (Ref. 6409) proved that Bodianus aya Bloch, 1790 is not a lutjanid, but probably a sciaenid.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 43.0, range 79 - 40.6 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); common length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 55)
soft rays: 8 - 9. Head short, its dorsal profile somewhat rounded behind eye. Snout short and blunt. Eye large. Preopercular notch and knob weak. Pectoral fins long, reaching level of anus. Scale rows on back rising obliquely above lateral line. Back and upper side deep red; lower sides and belly rosy, with a silvery sheen; the fins mainly red. A small spot is sometimes on the lateral line below the anterior portion of the dorsal fin rays. Young with a rounded black spot on upper side below anterior dorsal soft rays, disappearing with growth.
Adults inhabit rocky areas. They feed mainly on fishes, shrimps, crabs, cephalopods and planktonic items.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 6. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(6):208 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 55)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 31172)
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 21.2 - 26.5, mean 24.8 °C (based on 38 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01260 - 0.01658), b=2.97 (2.94 - 3.00), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.09-0.12; tm=5.5; tmax=18).
Prior r = 0.48, 95% CL = 0.32 - 0.72, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 48.3 [17.9, 91.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.352 [0.196, 0.687] mg/100g ; Protein = 18 [16, 19] % ; Omega3 = 0.219 [0.123, 0.369] g/100g ; Selenium = 149 [77, 297] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 32.7 [6.8, 129.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.405 [0.256, 0.700] mg/100g (wet weight);