Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 51 - 700 m (Ref. 4479). Deep-water; 48°N - 16°N
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to the Mauritanian upwelling region including the Mediterranean. Western Atlantic: Canada to USA. Distribution may be related to the oceanographic boundaries of the North Atlantic gyral system.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 3 - ? cm
Max length : 5.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4479)
High-oceanic, found below 700 m during the day and above 600 m at night (maximum abundance between 51-100 m and 301-350 m at night) (Ref. 4479). Juveniles and post-larvae are partial and non-migrants (Ref. 4479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hulley, P.A., 1990. Myctophidae. p. 398-467. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI; Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4479)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 11.5 - 18.5, mean 14 °C (based on 165 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00912 (0.00401 - 0.02074), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.00 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 94.1 [32.8, 304.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.952 [0.458, 2.258] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [15.0, 18.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.986 [0.424, 2.302] g/100g ; Selenium = 9.4 [3.4, 23.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 50.1 [11.0, 253.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.917 [0.501, 1.641] mg/100g (wet weight);