Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 12 m (Ref. 55763), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: Ecuador to southern Peru. Also in the Eastern Central Pacific (Ref. 9342).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
Body elongate, not very deep, and little compressed; upper jaw lacking supramaxilla; teeth firmly placed; not folding back; lower branch of first gill arch with 12 to 15 gill rakers; 3 or 4 dorsal fin spines prolonged and filamentous; pelvic fins inserted slightly behind pectoral fins; anal fin with 7 soft rays; back light brown; belly pale; pectoral fins and prolonged dorsal spines reddish brown (Ref. 55763).
Found in mangrove areas as well as shallow inlets and bays (Ref. 5227).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
CENAIM, 1992. A field guide to the edible fishes and shellfishes in coastal waters of Ecuador. Centro Nacional de Acuicultura e Investigaciones Marinas (CENAIM), Ecuador. 95 p. (Ref. 11035)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 29.1, mean 27.6 °C (based on 151 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00528 - 0.02278), b=3.05 (2.88 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 87.9 [48.3, 159.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.72 [0.41, 1.26] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [15.9, 19.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.275 [0.157, 0.459] g/100g ; Selenium = 74.6 [35.1, 140.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 38.8 [13.6, 135.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.781 [0.515, 1.208] mg/100g (wet weight);