Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Acanthuridae
(Surgeonfishes, tangs, unicornfishes) > Acanthurinae
Etymology: Acanthurus: Greek, akantha = thorn + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 40 m (Ref. 27115), usually 5 - 40 m (Ref. 27115). Tropical; 30°N - 10°N, 32°E - 54°E
Western Indian Ocean: endemic to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 23 - 26. Characterized by having 2 longitudinal bands on the side, one from the hind margin of the eye posteriorly, another from the groove around the caudal peduncle spine anteriorly. Juveniles of less than 5 cm SL lack the anterior band; less than 10 cm SL lack the posterior band. Reaches 24 cm SL.
Often found in large groups in open areas near coral or rock (Ref. 9710). Caught with nets (Ref. 30573). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 275.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Randall, J.E., 1987. Three nomenclatorial changes in Indo-Pacific surgeonfishes (Acanthurinae). Pac. Sci. 41(1-4):54-61. (Ref. 1921)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 23.8 - 29.1, mean 28.6 °C (based on 42 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.01088 - 0.04824), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.28 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 59.4 [19.5, 139.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.747 [0.286, 1.758] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.8, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.122 [0.060, 0.246] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.6 [7.0, 53.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 35 [11, 106] μg/100g ; Zinc = 2.11 [0.68, 3.97] mg/100g (wet weight);