Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Remora: Latin, remora = delay, hindrance (1567) (Ref. 45335); remora: remora meaning delay or hindrance; these fish were once thought to delay a ship's progress when they attached to the hull (Ref. 4389) More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range - 200 m (Ref. 86942), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 60°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E
Cosmopolitan in warm waters. Western Pacific: Japan (Ref. 559) to New Zealand and Norfolk Island (Ref. 8879). Eastern Pacific: San Francisco in California, USA to Chile (Ref. 2850). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Argentina (Ref. 7251). Eastern Atlantic: North Sea to the Canary Islands, including the western Mediterranean. Recorded from Iceland (Ref. 13583) and between Sweden and Denmark (Ref. 28571).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 86.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Usually associated with sharks but also attaches itself to other large fishes, sea turtles and even ships (Ref. 2850, 58302); found in gill chambers, fins and body surface (Ref. 5951). Sometimes free-swimming (Ref. 2850). Younger individual is more active as parasite pickers (Ref. 26938). Feeds on parasitic copepods (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lachner, E.A. and A. Post, 1990. Echeneidae. p. 725-728. In J. C. Quéro, J. C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 10791)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 11.7 - 28.2, mean 24.8 °C (based on 2107 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5352 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00111 - 0.00682), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 22.6 [12.6, 42.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.871 [0.516, 1.447] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.7 [18.7, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.136 [0.079, 0.237] g/100g ; Selenium = 25.1 [12.8, 48.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.1 [9.5, 92.5] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.72 [0.48, 1.09] mg/100g (wet weight);