Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; bathydemersal; depth range 50 - 1000 m (Ref. 6688). Deep-water; 5°C - 13°C; 45°N - 29°S, 180°W - 180°E
Circumglobal in temperate and tropical regions. Eastern Atlantic: Spain to at least 19°S, including the Mediterranean, Canary Islands and Cape Verde. Western Atlantic: southern New England, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to northern South America (Ref. 7251). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36731); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Body slightly compressed. The head is small; eyes large, diameter greater than snout length. Color is yellow-fawn, with irregular oblique brown blotches on the sides. The operculum is silver-black; anus and gill cavity black; belly stippled black; caudal fin base and inner ventral fin rays black.
Found on the continental shelf and upper slope over mud and clay bottom. Catch data indicate a schooling habit. Feeds mainly on bottom-living invertebrates. Also known to feed on pelagic crustaceans like euphausiids, decapods and mysids (Ref. 27637). A hermaphroditic species. Marketed fresh and sometimes made into fishmeal (Ref. 6688). Young are pelagic, living near the surface, the adults are demersal, living between 50 and 1000 m depth (Ref. 47377).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Merrett, N.R., 1990. Chlorophthalmidae. p. 351-360. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3590)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 6.4 - 19.2, mean 12.7 °C (based on 1136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00314 - 0.00553), b=3.15 (3.07 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 4.6 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=3-4).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 39.8 [12.4, 101.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.399 [0.165, 0.791] mg/100g ; Protein = 14 [11, 17] % ; Omega3 = 0.407 [0.119, 1.140] g/100g ; Selenium = 19.6 [7.2, 56.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 13.2 [2.4, 64.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.604 [0.363, 0.985] mg/100g (wet weight);