Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Lethrinidae
(Emperors or scavengers) > Monotaxinae
Etymology: Gnathodentex: Greek, gnathos = jaw + latin, dens, dentis = teeth (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 9710). Tropical; 30°N - 30°S, 31°E - 134°W
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Tuamoto Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands), north to Japan, south to Australia. Recently reported from Norfolk Island (Ref. 8880).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 42.3 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125599); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 125599)
Inhabits subtidal reef flats, lagoons, and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). May be solitary or in groups (Ref. 90102). Sometimes forms aggregations of about a hundred or more individuals. Feeds at night on benthic invertebrates like crabs and gastropods, occasionally on small fish. Usually marketed fresh.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3356 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00965 - 0.02604), b=3.01 (2.87 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 60.1 [34.2, 115.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.598 [0.366, 0.980] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.9 [18.0, 21.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.141 [0.084, 0.208] g/100g ; Selenium = 36.6 [21.6, 60.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 69.2 [21.0, 192.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.23 [0.83, 1.73] mg/100g (wet weight);