Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Hemicaranx: Greek, hemi = the half + French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical
Eastern Atlantic: Along the west African coast from Sierra Leone to Angola (Ref. 57392). Reported from the Sine-Saloum Estuary in Senegal, the Gambia River in Gambia, the Fatala River in Guinea (Ref. 28587) and from Mauritania (Ref. 55783), but this is unconfirmed in Ref. 57392 and needs confirmation.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57392); common length : 25.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3195)
soft rays: 21 - 24. Diagnosis: body elongate (depth comprised 2.4-3.1 times in fork length) and strongly compressed; eyes small; snout short and rounded; mouth small; end of upper jaw extending to below anterior eye margin; teeth present in jaws, absent on vomer; 1st dorsal fin with 7 spines, 2nd dorsal with 1 spine and 24-28 soft rays; anal fin with 2 detached spines, followed by 1 spine and 21-24 soft rays; scales small and cycloid; breast completely scaleless; lateral line arched over anterior half of pectoral fins, its posterior (straight) part with 41-43 scutes; caudal peduncle very slender, without bilateral keels above and below last lateral line scutes (Ref. 57392).
Coloration: back bluish, sides silvery; black spot on upper margin of gill cover; dorsal- and upper caudal-fin lobes broadly black-edged, other fins light; juveniles with 4-5 dark crossbars on back and sides (Ref. 57392).
Adults are found mainly in coastal areas, entering brackish water (Ref. 2683, 57392). Common mostly in midwater and near bottom (Ref. 7079). Young live in association with medusa (jellyfish) (Ref. 57392).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.4 - 27.9, mean 26.7 °C (based on 62 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01349 (0.00652 - 0.02790), b=2.96 (2.79 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (48 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 156 [84, 317] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.1 [0.7, 2.2] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [17.0, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.541 [0.262, 1.132] g/100g ; Selenium = 80.7 [39.4, 168.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16.3 [5.4, 45.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.12 [0.74, 1.71] mg/100g (wet weight);