Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 7 m (Ref. 5439), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 31°N - 35°S, 30°E - 157°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa (Ref. 3287) to the Marshall Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 58 - ? cm
Max length : 110 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1602); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3280); max. published weight: 3.4 kg (Ref. 40637)
Juveniles inhabit sandy shorelines and shallow sandy or muddy bays near river mouths while adults move out in schools to clear seaward coral and rock reefs (Ref. 5213). Juveniles are in small schools, while adults are usually solitary (Ref. 48635). Adults feed primarily on sand mollusks and other hard-shelled invertebrates (Ref. 9710).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30911)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.4 °C (based on 3759 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02692 (0.01497 - 0.04839), b=2.81 (2.65 - 2.97), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tm=2-4).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (63 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.9 [16.1, 76.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.604 [0.314, 1.436] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.247 [0.119, 0.518] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.2 [17.2, 97.2] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 42.3 [9.6, 174.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.991 [0.566, 1.633] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.