Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Shaw.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indian Ocean: Somalia (Ref. 30573) and Kenya to Algoa Bay, South Africa; also Madagascar, Sri Lanka and western Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 75.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3197); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5450); max. published weight: 2.3 kg (Ref. 3287)
soft rays: 19 - 22. Bluish black above, silvery below; 1-5 large spots on or near LL (absent in specimens less than 15 cm, number of spots increasing with age); caudal, 2nd dorsal and anal fins dusky to blue-black, the lobes usually darker (Ref. 3197).
Adults occur inshore (Ref. 7300), in sandy surf zones; juveniles in shallow surf zones (Ref. 4332). Adults feed on crabs, mussels, and worms (Ref. 5213).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.5 - 29.1, mean 28.1 °C (based on 1436 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00555 - 0.02168), b=2.94 (2.76 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 49.6 [24.7, 96.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.836 [0.464, 1.617] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.6 [16.7, 20.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.273 [0.141, 0.534] g/100g ; Selenium = 44.9 [22.9, 90.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 42.7 [11.9, 142.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.86, 1.99] mg/100g (wet weight);