Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cichliformes
(Cichlids, convict blennies) > Cichlidae
(Cichlids) > Pseudocrenilabrinae
Etymology: Oreochromis: Latin, aurum = gold + Greek, chromis = a fish, perhaps a perch (Ref. 45335). More on author: Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 13°S - 28°S
Africa: Lower Zambezi and southwards in the lower parts of the Sabi, Lundi, Pungwe and Buzi Rivers; Ruvuma River on the Tanzanian-Mozambique border; Lake Rutumba, Lupululu system, and the Lupuledi west of Lindi. Previously, two subspecies were recognized: Oreochromis placidus placidus and Oreohromis placidus ruvumae.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2)
(total): 16 - 18;
soft rays: 8 - 11;
Vertebrae: 29 - 31. Silvery to steel-grey, whitish below. Breeding males are very dark grey on head and body with throat and all fins black; with a red or orange margin on the dorsal and grey or black marblings on the gill-cover.
Prefers quiet pools with marginal vegetation. Has been reported only from fresh water and low altitudes and latitudes, so that its salinity and temperature tolerances are probably narrower than those of O. mossambicus (Ref. 2).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Trewavas, E. and G.G. Teugels, 1991. Oreochromis. p. 307-346. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse, G.G. Teugels and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Checklist of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MRAC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 4. (Ref. 5166)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01905 (0.00827 - 0.04391), b=3.01 (2.82 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .