Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; pH range: 8.0 - ?; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 22°C - 27°C (Ref. 85713)
Asia: India (Ref. 4832), Bangladesh (Ref. 1479) and Nepal (Ref. 6351).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4832)
soft rays: 8. Body depth slightly more than head length; mouth narrow and subterminal; 2 pairs barbels, longer than orbit; eye-diameter 5 to 6.5 times in head; dorsal spine strong and serrated, the denticles strong and recurved; scales small, transverse scale-rows 11/9, circumferential scales 40-44; tubercles on snout and cheeks of females smaller than those of males (Ref. 4832).
Adults inhabit large rivers with rocky bottoms, clear and fast water and little or no vegetation. Made into fish paste (Ref. 4832).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00332 - 0.01045), b=3.14 (2.98 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.8 ±0.3 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .