Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Africa: Nile and Chad basins. Known from the great Sahelo-Soudanian basins in Senegal, Gambia and Volta; also in the Mono, the Gêba, the Bandama, the Comoe River, and the Ebrie and Aguien lagoons (Ref. 2915).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31256); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 2915)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 16 - 20. Caudal peduncle high, 1.1-2.0 length to length ratio. 4.2-6.2 SL/depth ratio; silver color sometimes grayish or darker, back grayish yellow, green or black, stomach white, whitish yellow or clear gray.
Possesses electroreceptors over the entire head and on the ventral and dorsal regions of the body, but absent from the side and the caudal peduncle where the electric organ is located (Ref. 10011). A fractional spawner (Ref. 10605; 10606).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bigorne, R., 1990. Mormyridae. p. 122-184. In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. tome 1. Faune Trop. 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and ORSTOM, Paris. (Ref. 2915)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00742 - 0.02135), b=2.82 (2.68 - 2.96), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .