Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Toxotidae
Etymology: Toxotes: Greek, toxotes = bowman (Ref. 45335). More on author: Günther.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; pelagic; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Asia: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30857)
(total): 4 - 5. Deep body; a flat back and a deeply curved belly; large eyes; pointed snout; a single dorsal fin with 4-5 spines; dark bars or blotches on a yellow to silvery background.
Occurs in large rivers (Ref. 27732). Found along the shores of flowing and standing waters with overhanging vegetation. This is the more common species of the genus found well upstream from the estuary. Feeds on terrestrial insects, zooplankton, crustaceans and aquatic insect larvae. Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Rainboth, W.J., 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. FAO, Rome, 265 p. (Ref. 12693)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5156 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.00629 - 0.04379), b=3.00 (2.78 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.46 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .