Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 10 - 94 m (Ref. 96339), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 35°N - 6°N, 121°W - 77°W
Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Panama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 175 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96339)
Found on the continental shelves, close inshore to well offshore. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized for human consumption.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 18.4 - 28.8, mean 25 °C (based on 76 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00240 (0.00109 - 0.00528), b=3.13 (2.95 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (75 of 100) .