Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Arhynchobatidae
Etymology: Bathyraja: Greek, bathys = deep + Latin, raja, -ae = a ray (Raja sp) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gilbert.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 15 - 1602 m (Ref. 50550), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
North Pacific: northern Japan to the Aleutian Islands and southeastern Alaska.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 112 - 132 cm
Max length : 161 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 56527); max. published weight: 23.1 kg (Ref. 56527)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Paired thorns on scapular region; a series of continuous thorns from nuchal region onto tail (Ref. 559). Tail long, its length equal to or longer than disc length (Ref. 559). Snout length 1/2 or more of distance from snout tip to 5th gill opening (Ref. 559). Ventral side of disk white, with grayish margin (Ref. 559).
Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsule measures 120-136 mm long and 73-90 mm wide (Ref. 41249, 41253).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 1.3 - 5.1, mean 2.3 °C (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00316 (0.00214 - 0.00467), b=3.11 (2.99 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.76 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (86 of 100) .