Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes
(Skates and rays) > Rajidae
Etymology: .heemstrai: Named after Phillip C. Heemstra who provided 5 specimens of this species (Ref. 31308)
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathydemersal; depth range 260 - 500 m (Ref. 11228), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C -
Western Indian Ocean: off Kenya and Tanzania (Ref. 31308) to southern Mozambique (Ref. 11228).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31308)
Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Eggs have horn-like projections on the shell (Ref. 205). Minimum depth from Ref. 58018.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, paired eggs are laid. Embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 9.8 - 14, mean 11.7 °C (based on 15 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00309 (0.00145 - 0.00660), b=3.22 (3.04 - 3.40), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Fec assumed to be <100).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .