Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Gymnuridae
Etymology: Gymnura: Greek, gymnos = naked + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 1 - 94 m (Ref. 96339), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 44°N -
Eastern Pacific: California, USA to Peru.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9255); common length : 95.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 1468)
Inhabits warm-temperate to tropical shallow bays and beaches (Ref. 2850). Feeds on crustaceans and small fishes (Ref. 37955). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Has a small venom apparatus which has limited use as a defense organ (Ref. 37955). Maximum length reported to reach 150 cm (Ref. 37955).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205).
Compagno, L.J.V., 1999. Checklist of living elasmobranchs. p. 471-498. In W.C. Hamlett (ed.) Sharks, skates, and rays: the biology of elasmobranch fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Maryland. (Ref. 35766)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.7 - 28.8, mean 23.4 °C (based on 100 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00385 - 0.01971), b=3.06 (2.85 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.65 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec assumed to be <10).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (50 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 33.1 [5.0, 115.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.806 [0.218, 2.174] mg/100g ; Protein = 22.2 [19.3, 24.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.306 [0.107, 0.780] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.7 [6.9, 70.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.3 [4.7, 32.1] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.55 [0.27, 1.19] mg/100g (wet weight);