Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range - 100 m (Ref. 12951), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°N - 34°S
Probably circumtropical but in scattered localities. Eastern Atlantic: off Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. Indian Ocean: off South Africa, Bay of Bengal, and probably Indonesia (Ref. 9911). Western Pacific: Gulf of Thailand (Ref. 9911) and northeastern Australia (Ref. 6871). Eastern Pacific: southern California, USA to Costa Rica (Ref. 2850), including the Gulf of Tehuantepec (Ref. 9911). Reported from Chile (Ref. 9068). Possibly = Mobula eregoodoo (Cantor, 1849) (Ref. 35766).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 150 - 154 cm
Max length : 220 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); common length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 9256)
Morphology | Morphometrics
A moderate-sized devilray with a short head bearing short head fins; dorsal fin white-tipped, and pectoral fins with swept-back tips and a prominent double bend to the front margins; upper disc sparsely covered with small, blunt denticles and tail shorter than disc, with no spine (Ref. 5578). Dark blue to black above; white below, with silvery pectoral fin tips (Ref. 5578). No caudal fin (Ref. 5578).
Occurs in coastal and oceanic waters, but more common near the coast (Ref. 9256). Found singly or in small groups (Ref. 12951). Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans (Ref. 12951); mostly small shrimp-like animals (Ref.58048). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). Caught occasionally in the tuna gillnet and in harpoon fisheries. Utilized for its gill filter plates (high value), meat, cartilage and skin (Ref.58048). Can leap out of the water.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). With one large offspring per gestation period. Size at birth 65-85 cm (Ref. 6871).
Last, P.R. and J.D. Stevens, 1994. Sharks and rays of Australia. CSIRO, Australia. 513 p. (Ref. 6871)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.6 - 29.1, mean 27.8 °C (based on 2652 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 13.4 [1.4, 86.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.3 [0.2, 4.7] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.7 [18.1, 23.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.222 [0.076, 0.654] g/100g ; Selenium = 22.4 [6.1, 87.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 5.65 [1.23, 28.35] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.522 [0.130, 1.883] mg/100g (wet weight);