Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes
(Cusk eels) > Bythitidae
Etymology: Grammonus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, onos = hake.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 6 - 18 m (Ref. 36488), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Eastern Pacific: San Clemente Island in south California, USA to Panama and the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 20.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4930)
Uncommon species (Ref. 34024). Inhabits rocky areas of shallow waters (Ref. 2850). Hides in dark caverns and crevices during the day, active at night (Ref. 2850). Gives birth to live young (Ref. 28023).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Ovoviviparous (Ref. 36488).
Nielsen, J.G., D.M. Cohen, D.F. Markle and C.R. Robins, 1999. Ophidiiform fishes of the world (Order Ophidiiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of pearlfishes, cusk-eels, brotulas and other ophidiiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(18):178p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 34024)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.3 - 29.1, mean 26.7 °C (based on 204 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5005 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00179 - 0.01169), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 70.4 [35.2, 140.9] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.979 [0.577, 1.749] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.2 [15.4, 20.6] % ; Omega3 = 0.185 [0.105, 0.334] g/100g ; Selenium = 17.4 [8.3, 36.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 55.9 [16.5, 175.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.17 [0.76, 1.81] mg/100g (wet weight);