Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Zoarcoidei
(Eelpouts and pricklebacks) > Zoarcidae
(Eelpouts) > Gymnelinae
Etymology: Melanostigma: Greek, melan, -anos = black + Greek, stigma = signal (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 400 - 1853 m (Ref. 58426). Deep-water; 74°N - 19°N, 77°W - 6°E
Northwest Atlantic: New Brunswick in Canada to Virginia in USA. Eastern Atlantic: Off the western coast of Scotland and in the Mediterranean (Gulf of Genoa; also off Spain) (Ref. 4695), Faeroe-Iceland Ridge and between Cap Blanc, Mauritania and the Canary Islands (Ref. 6950).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Occurs in midwater over the continental slope. Mostly found from 365-550 m depth, but enters shallower water in the northern part of range (Ref. 7251); prefers salinity of 33.4-34.7 ppt. (Ref. 5951). Bathypelagic (Ref. 58426). Feeds on foraminifera, copepods, and ostracods (Ref. 9731).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.3 - 10.6, mean 5.8 °C (based on 143 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00135 - 0.00777), b=3.15 (2.94 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3; Fec=43).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 51 [23, 112] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.58 [0.29, 1.16] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.8 [13.9, 19.2] % ; Omega3 = 0.298 [0.149, 0.573] g/100g ; Selenium = 12.2 [4.4, 29.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 15.4 [3.3, 71.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.822 [0.524, 1.319] mg/100g (wet weight);