Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Belonidae
Etymology: Strongylura: Greek, strongylos = round + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - ? m. Tropical; 33°N - 8°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Central Atlantic: Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Belize, and Honduras (Ref. 50368); also reported from Bermuda (Ref. 7251). Another subspecies, Strongylura notata forsythia is recognized occurring from the Bahamas, southern Florida, and the Gulf of Mexico west to Mobile Bay, Alabama.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 61.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Inhabits coastal waters, mostly in bays and inlets. May enter freshwater (Ref. 9710). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Eggs may be found attached to objects in the water by tendrils on the egg's surface (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B., K.E. Bemis, N.V. Parin and I.B, Shakhovskoy, 2019. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Order Beloniformes (Needlefishes, Sauries, Halfbeaks, and Flyingfishes). Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 10):1-252. (Ref. 123692)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.9 - 28, mean 26.7 °C (based on 214 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00112 (0.00068 - 0.00186), b=3.05 (2.91 - 3.19), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.4 ±0.7 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.3 [26.9, 164.0] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.686 [0.347, 1.379] mg/100g ; Protein = 16.7 [14.6, 18.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.272 [0.098, 0.803] g/100g ; Selenium = 39.3 [16.0, 98.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 207 [48, 830] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.24 [0.74, 2.09] mg/100g (wet weight);