Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes/Percoidei
(Perchs) > Percidae
(Perches) > Etheostomatinae
Etymology: Percina: Latin, diminutive of perch = perch (Ref. 45335); maculata: maculata meaning spotted (Ref. 10294).
More on author: Girard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 55°N - 31°N
North America: Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from southern Ontario in Canada and from New York in the USA to southeastern Saskatchewan in Canada and south to Louisiana in the USA; Gulf drainages from Mobile Bay in Alabama to Calcasieu River in Louisiana, USA.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 11.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 5.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 12193)
Inhabit pools of creeks and small to medium rivers, usually with moderate current and gravel or sand bottoms (Ref. 5723, 10294). Adults feed on dipterans such as midge and blackfly larvae; mayfly nymphs are second of importance, followed by caddisfly larvae (Ref. 10294). Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Eggs are found buried in the substrate (Ref. 7043).
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00322 - 0.01181), b=3.17 (2.99 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.66 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tmax=4; Fec=1000-1758).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).