Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Kurtiformes
(Nurseryfishes, cardinalfishes.) > Apogonidae
(Cardinalfishes) > Apogoninae
Etymology: Apogon: Greek, a = without + Greek pogon = chin, beard (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 75 m. Tropical
Western Atlantic: southern Florida in USA and Bahamas to Curaçao and Venezuela, including the Gulf of Mexico (Ref. 9626).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251)
Most common in seagrass beds, but occurs from water's edge to 75 m depth. Commonly trawled on shallow shrimp grounds.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Mouthbrooders (Ref. 240). Distinct pairing during courtship and spawning (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.7 - 28, mean 25.6 °C (based on 478 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01000 (0.00244 - 0.04107), b=3.04 (2.81 - 3.27), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 174 [93, 414] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.36 [0.83, 2.22] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [17.9, 20.1] % ; Omega3 = 0.199 [0.110, 0.353] g/100g ; Selenium = 26.3 [13.2, 55.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 131 [47, 366] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.77 [1.17, 2.67] mg/100g (wet weight);