Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Remora: Latin, remora = delay, hindrance (1567) (Ref. 45335); australis: australis meaning southern (Ref. 6885)
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 108953), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C -
Worldwide in tropical and warm waters. Western Atlantic: Texas, USA to Brazil. Eastern Pacific: Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada to Chile (Ref. 2850). Mediterranean reports doubtful (Ref. 13729).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850)
Oceanic, mostly in warm seas. Attaches itself only to whales and porpoises (Ref. 7251). One adult couple was recorded attached to the same individual spinner dolphin for a period of about 3 months (Ref. 50801). A common associate of spinner dolphins at Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, southeast Atlantic, where it occurs year-round. Recorded feeding on spinner dolphins’ feces and vomits (Ref. 48727).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 14.1 - 27.5, mean 23 °C (based on 1102 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5352 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00111 - 0.00682), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (45 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 64.3 [36.7, 114.3] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.73 [1.06, 2.68] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.1 [18.2, 20.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.282 [0.177, 0.452] g/100g ; Selenium = 31 [17, 56] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 9.61 [3.46, 27.27] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.8 [0.6, 1.1] mg/100g (wet weight);